René Descartes  

  The leaning Tower 15:
Descartes enlists as soldier in the Thirty Years War, is discovered by  Isaac Beeckman and invents the coordinate system. Descartes receives his great vision in the army camp at Neuburg: Cogito ergo sum.

4.83 Mb
  The leaning Tower 16:
Descartes and the methodical doubt. The bee wax analogy demonstrates that thought is more fundamental than sensation. Descartes and the intellectuals' Internationale.

4.76 Mb
  The leaning Tower 17:
Descartes in Amsterdam. Dualism, res cogitans and res extensa. Descartes' physical theories and dioptric.

5.41 Mb
  The leaning Tower 18:
Descartes explains the body as a mechanical machine and describes as first the reflex arc.  The heart rending story about Francine.

4.86 Mb
  The leaning Tower 19:
Descartes denies the animal soul, but finds the human soul a seat in the pineal gland.  Descartes proposes his hypothesis of psycho-physical interaction and explains how early experience can steer us unconsciously. 

4.95 Mb
  The leaning Tower 20:
Elizabeth's intelligent objections make Descartes doubt his own hypothesis and adversity makes him accept Queen Christina's invitation. Descartes' dies in Stockholm from loneliness and cold.  Descartes is humiliated even after death.

4.67 Mb
The leaning Tower series
still to be completed.